Thursday, 23 July 2015

Lower the Drinking Age!

NZ’s legal drinking age is 18, lowered from 20 in 1999. But there are wowsers about who think Nanny should return it to 20, MPs in 2012 for example voting only 68 to 53 to keep the age at 18 — contrary to the Law Commission's recommendation to return the age to 20. In this guest post, Jeffrey Tucker looks at how keeping it at 21 in the States has caused so many of the problems bewailed by the wowsers. “The law is causing worse problems than it solves,” he says.

Lower the Drinking Age!
Guest post by Jeffrey Tucker

imageIt’s rush time for fraternities and sororities on American college campuses right now. That means dressing up, networking, socialising, attending parties, and staying up late nights. It also means, whether parents know it (or like it) or not, astonishing amounts of drinking of very potent liquor. One of the most famous “drinks” is called “jungle juice”: trash barrels filled with random spirits and mixtures, consumed one red cup at a time.

Many of these kids are away from home for the first time, able to drink to their heart’s content. A huge culture has grown up around this practice, including a full vocabulary, games, and rituals. Mostly it is just fun, but it can also lead to serious trouble for everyone involved. Let’s not be squeamish: it leads to very un-adult-like amounts of personal abuse and, often, the abuse of others.

Most of these kids have never been socialised in what it means to drink responsibly. They are living for the thrill that comes with defiance. The combination of new freedom, liquor, and sexual opportunity leads to potentially damaged lives.

How do these kids get away with this? In fraternities and sororities, it all happens on private property, not public and commercial spaces, and so campus police can look the other way. Most everyone does.

Indeed, being able to drink with friends, and unhampered by authority, is a major appeal of the Greek system on campus. It’s a way to get around the preposterously high drinking age. Getting around this law will consume a major part of the energy and creativity of these kids for the next three years.

As for everyone else who cannot afford to join, it’s all about a life of sneaking around, getting to know older friends, lying and hiding, pre-loading before parties just in case there is no liquor there, and generally adopting a life of bingeing and purging, blackouts and hangovers, rising and repeating. And so on it goes for years until finally the dawn of what the state considers adulthood.

For an entire class of people, it’s the Roaring Twenties all over again.

It’s all part of Prohibition’s legacy and a reflection of this country’s strange attitudes toward drinking in general. The drinking age in the United States (21), adopted in 1984, is one of the highest in the world. Countries that compare in severity are only a few, including Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Cameroon, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan.

Most of the rest of the world has settled on 18 for liquor and 16 for beer and wine. In practice, most European countries have very low enforcement of even that. Somehow it works just fine for them.

The consequences of this draconian law have been terrible for American society. Teenage drinking is a gigantic part of American life, all done surreptitiously and mostly without responsible oversight. The market for fake IDs is ubiquitous and diffuse. Everyone in the United States has a story of kids and their abusive habits, their strategizing, their hidden flasks and risky games, their constant manoeuvring to do what they know they are not supposed to do.

The drinking-age law would surely be a winner in a competition for the least-obeyed law. The notion that this law is accomplishing anything to actually stop or even curb teen drinking is preposterous. Instead, we see all the unintended effects of Prohibition: over-indulgence, anti-social behaviour, disrespect for the law, secrecy and sneaking, and a massive diversion of human energy.

People speak of a rape crisis on campus, and whatever the scope of the problem, the fact that women under 21 must retreat to dorm rooms and frat houses to drink puts them all in a vulnerable situation. It’s hard to imagine that consent is really there when people are falling down, passing out, and feeling mortified the next day about what happened. In fact, the law represents a true danger to women in particular because it prohibits legal access to safe public places to drink responsibly, and go home to a safe environment afterward.

There is an organisation of college administrators who are fed up. It is called the Amethyst Initiative. Currently, 135 colleges have signed support for a lower drinking age. Their goal is not to encourage more drinking but to recognize the unreality of the current law, and how it has led to perverse consequences on campus.

You know the situation has to be extremely serious to get this risk-averse crowd on board. Their statement reads:

A culture of dangerous, clandestine “binge-drinking” — often conducted off-campus — has developed. Alcohol education that mandates abstinence as the only legal option has not resulted in significant constructive behavioral change among our students.
   
Adults under 21 are deemed capable of voting, signing contracts, serving on juries and enlisting in the military, but are told they are not mature enough to have a beer. By choosing to use fake IDs, students make ethical compromises that erode respect for the law.

It’s not just about campus. It’s about teens and drinking in general. The law requires them to hide in private places. Such clandestine meetings can lead to compromising and dangerous situations without reliable public oversight.

It’s also about business. Convenience stores and bars, in particular, have been put in a strange position. They have been enlisted to become the enforcement arm of an unenforceable policy, which has meant haranguing customers, inventing new systems for ferreting out violators, turning the servers into cops, confiscating IDs, and creating an environment of snooping and threats in a place that should be about service and fun.

imageWhy isn’t something done to change this? Those who are most affected have the least political power. By the time they figure out the ropes in American political life, they are turning 21 and so no longer have to deal with the problem. In practice, this means that there is no real constituency pushing for reform of these laws. That’s why they have persisted for 30 years without serious pressure to change, despite the obvious failure they have been.

There is some movement at the state level. In Missouri, long-time state representative Rep. Phyllis Kahn has worked for a lowering of the drinking age in her state. She has an interesting take on whether this would mean that the state would have to give up 10% of federal highway funds (the threat that the feds used to force states to raise their drinking ages). In 2012, a Supreme Court ruling on Medicaid clearly stated that the federal government could not coerce states by withdrawing funding to force legislative action at the state level.

Other activists have said that even if the federal highway funding is cut, the increase in revenue from alcohol sales (and decline in enforcement costs) could make up a lot of the difference.

Regardless of the financing issues, current drinking-age law is unenforceable and destructive. The reality is that kids are going to drink. Denying that and imposing ever more draconian punishments doesn’t fix the real problems with alcohol.

What we need is a normal environment of parental and community supervision so that such drinking can occur in a responsible way. Yes, kids will probably drink more often, and yes, more kids will probably try alcohol, but they can do so in an environment of safety and responsibility.

Bringing it into the light, rather than driving it underground, is the best way to solve binging and abuse. Doubling down on a bad rule, rooted in the idea that laws can change human desire, is not a workable solution.

The choice between virtue and vice is a human choice. Relying on the government to make this choice for us disables the social order’s internal mechanisms for bringing about and rewarding responsible behaviour. It seems like a paradox, but it is true: The only path toward restoring sanity in teenage drinking is greater liberty.


1510356_10152031836791198_5723409222679531326_nJeffrey Tucker is Director of Digital Development at the Foundation for Economic Education, Fee, CLO of the startup Liberty.me, and editor at Laissez Faire Books. Author of five books, he speaks at FEE summer seminars and other events. His latest book is Bit by Bit: How P2P Is Freeing the World.
This post first appeared at FEE.
Pic from SanAntonioStudyBreaks.Com website: How To Do a Successful Keg Stand.

3 comments:

  1. I'm a kiwi of French & Croatian decent. The first drink other than breast milk was a sip of Claret at 2 months old (as most Red Wine was known as then in 1963- funny that now, in NZ Claret, is only used to describe bleeding head wounds in rugby/rugby league- I digress).
    My Grandmother used to dip her (clean) figure into brandy (hopefully it was a fine Cognac but I have my doubts) when we were teething & rum the brandy on our gums- which dulled the pain & helped us sleep. We ALWAYS had wine with food on our dinner table, my father diluted the wine, half water, half wine- not to reduce our alcohol intake, purely that we were 'poor' & Dad was trying to make a bottle last a week. Same with my kids- wine with almost every dinner- of which my Girls rarely have more than a couple of sips, We get them to smell & taste the wine & to appreciate the craftsmanship etc. My elder Daughter is the only sensible drinker in her circle of friends- (she is 16) the rest get trashed. If you believe the wowsers, my Daughter should be the heavy drinker- not the other way round!

    IvanK

    ReplyDelete
  2. New Zealand doesn't *quite* have a drinking age. We have:
    1) A minimum purchase age of 18;
    2) A minimum age for legal supply of alcohol, whether or not purchased: you cannot supply alcohol to a minor *unless the minor has a permission note from the parent*.

    So a 16 year old at a party with a parent's permission can drink.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I *knew* someone would point out that small print as soon as I wrote it. Mind you, my bet was on someone else doing it, not you.

      But, you know, given all the "social shaming" lynch-mob mentality that's so prevalent today, I wonder just how long that loophole will stay open. Imagine the backlash should one 16-year-old misbehave after over-imbibition ...

      Delete

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